Sun and Stars Fueled from Space
The most recent proposal examines the process whereby the sun and stars may be powered by basic subatomic particles from space. The properties of these proposed particles appear in the "Basic Particles of Subatomic Matter" section. Initial contact of the above particles with atomic matter is deemed to be primarily with atomic nuclei. the particles deliver subatomic mass and kinetic energy upon contact with the surfaces of atomic nuclei. A proposed "consolidation" of the incoming particles produces larger "heat carrier" particles that retain the overall mass and kinetic energy of the component particles as they merge with the surface layers of nuclei.
Consolidated heat carriers are deemed to form an "atomic atmosphere" within the body of the atom. Heat carrier particles are received continuously from the nucleus, necessitating their removal at the same rate for stability to ensue. It is proposed that electrons have a purpose of collecting HC particles within their orbits, accelerating them to the speed of light and releasing them tangentially into the outer environment. the proposed process is denoted as "ballistic radiation" by which HC particles are launched into empty space to move in straight lines until other matter is encountered.
Some atoms near the interior surface of the sun may launch HC particles directly into space but most atoms, by far, release particles far below the surface to re-enter the atmospheres of other atoms many times before the eventual continuation into space. It appears that nature endows most stars with the means to prevent runaway increase of retained heat. It appears that most stars counteract excessive internal heating with corresponding amounts of radiation.